Cooking Related Items

All cooking related items.. facts about ingredients we usually use.. cooking terms.. and loads more


Tuesday, October 25, 2005

Cooking Glossary


Al dente – Italian term to describe pasta and rice that are cooked until tender but still firm to the bite.

Bake blind – to bake pastry cases without their fillings. Line the raw pastry case with greaseproof paper and fill with raw rice or dried beans to prevent collapsed sides and puffed base. Remove paper and fill 5 minutes before completion of cooking time.

Baste – To spoon hot cooking liquid over food at intervals during cooking to moisten and flavor it.

Beat – To make a mixture smooth with rapid and regular motions using a spatula, wire whisk or electric mixer; to make a mixture light and smooth by enclosing air.

Beurre manié – equal quantities of butter and flour mixed together to a smooth paste and stirred bit by bit into a soup, stew or sauce while on the heat to thicken. Stop adding when desired thickness results.

Bind – to add egg or a thick sauce to hold ingredients together when cooked.

Blanch – to plunge some foods into boiling water for less than a minute and immediately plunge into iced water. This is to brighten the color of some vegetables; to remove skin from tomatoes and nuts.

Blend – to mix 2 or more ingredients thoroughly together ; do not confuse with blending in an electric blender.

Boil – To cook in a liquid brought to boiling point and kept there.

Boiling point – When bubbles rise continually and break over the entire surface of the liquid, reaching a temperature of 100o C(212 o F). In some cases food is held at this high temperature for a few seconds then heat is turned to low for slower cooking . simmer.

Bouquet garni – A bundle of several herbs tied together with string for easy removal, placed into pots of stock, soups and stews for flavor. A few sprigs of fresh thyme, bay leaf and parsley are used.

Caramelize – To heat sugar in a heavy-based pan until it liquefies and develops a caramel color. Vegetables such as blanched carrots and sautéed onions may be sprinkled with sugar and caramelize; to cook a vegetable in a hot pan by itself until its natural sugar comes out and turn brown.

Chill – to place in the refrigerator or stir over ice until cold.

Clarify – to make a liquid clear by removing sediments and impurities. To melt fat and remove sediment.

Coat – To dust or roll food items in flour to cover the surface before the food is cooked. Also, to coat in flour, egg and bread crumbs.

Cool – to stand at room temperature until some or all heat is removed, e.g. cool a little, cool completely.

Cream - to make creamy and fluffy by working the mixture with the back of a wooden spoon, usually refers to creaming butter and sugar or margarine. May also be creamed with an electric mixer.

Croutons – Small cubes of bread, toasted or fried, used as an addition to salads or as a garnish to soups and stews.

Crudite – raw vegetable sticks served with a dipping sauce.

Crumb – To coat foods in flour, egg and bread crumbs to form a protective coating for foods which are fried. Also adds flavor, texture and enhances appearance.

Cube – To cut into small pieces with six even sides, e.g. cubes of meat.

Cut in – to combine fat and flour using 2 knives scissor fashion or with a pastry blender, to make pastry.

Deglaze – To dissolve dried out cooking juices left on the base and sides of a roasting dish or frying pan. Add a little water, wine or stock, scrape and stir over heat until dissolved. Resulting liquid is used to make a flavorsome gravy or added to sauce or casserole.

Degrease – To skim fat from the surface of cooking liquids, e.g. stocks, soups, casseroles.

Dice – to cut into small cubes

Dredge – to heavily coat with icing sugar, sugar, flour or corn flour.

Dressing - a mixture added to completed dished to add moisture and flavor, e.g. salads, cooked vegetables.

Drizzle – to pour in a fine thread-like stream moving over a surface.

Egg wash – beaten egg with milk or water used to brush over pastry, bread dough or biscuits to give sheen and golden brown color.

Essence – a strong flavoring liquid, usually made by distillation. Only a few drops are needed to flavor.

Fillet – a piece of prime meat, fish or poultry which is boneless or has all bones removed.

Flame – to ignite warmed alcohol over food or to pour into a pan with food, ignite then serve.

Flute – to make decorative indentations around the pastry rim before baking.

Fold in – combining of a light, whisked or creamed mixture with other ingredients. Add a portion of the other ingredients at a time and mix using a gentle circular motion, over and under the mixture so that air will not be lost. Use a silver spoon or spatula.

Glaze – to brush or coat food with a liquid that will give the finished product a glossy appearance and on baked products, a golden brown color.

Grease – to rub the surface of a metal or heatproof dish with oil or fat, to prevent the food from sticking.

Herbed butter – softened butter mixed with finely chopped fresh herbs and re-chilled. Used to serve on grilled meats and fish.

Hors D’Oeuvre – small savory foods served as an appetizer, popularly known today as ‘finger foods’

Infuse – to steep foods in a liquid until the liquid absorbs their flavor.

Joint – to cut poultry into serving pieces by dividing a joint.

Julienne – to cut some food e.g. vegetables and processed meats into fine strips the length of matchsticks. Used for inclusion in salads or as a garnish to cooked dishes.

Knead – to work a yeast dough in a pressing stretching and folding motion with the heel of the hand until smooth and elastic to develop the gluten strands. Non yeast doughs should be lightly and quickly handled as gluten development is not desired.

Line – to cover the inside of a baking tin with paper for the easy removal of the cooked product from the baking tin.

Macerate – to stand fruit in a syrup, liquor or spirit to give added flavor.

Marinade – a flavored liquid, into which food is placed for some time to give it flavor and to tenderize. Marinades include an acid ingredient such as vinegar or wine, oil and seasonings.

Mask – to evenly cover cooked food portions with a sauce, mayonnaise or savory jelly.

Pan-fry – to fry foods in a small amount of fat or oil, sufficient to coat the base of the pan.

Parboil – to boil until partially cooked. The food is then finished by some other method.

Pare – to peel the skin from vegetables and fruit. Peel is the popular term but pare is the name given to the knife used, paring knife.

Pith – the white lining between the rind and fresh of oranges, grapefruit and lemons.

Pit – to remove stones or seeds from olives, cherries, dates.

Pitted – the olives, cherries, dates etc. with the stone removed, e.g. purchase pitted dates.

Poach – to simmer gently in enough hot liquid to almost cover the foods so shape will be retained.

Pound – to flatten meats with a meat mallet; to reduce to a paste or small particles with a mortar and pestle.

Simmer – to cook in liquid just below boiling point about 96o C (20 5 o F) with small bubbles rising gently to the surface.

Skim – to remove fat or froth from the surface of simmering food.

Stock – the liquid produced when meat, poultry, fish or vegetables have been simmered in water to extract the flavor. Used as a base for soups, sauces, casseroles etc.

Sweat – to cook sliced onions or vegetables, in a small amount of butter in a covered pan over low heat, to soften them and release flavor without coloring.


Beef Nutritional facts

Concerns over saturated fat and cholesterol have caused many people to reduce or eliminate their consumption of beef and other meats, but beef can be part of a healthy, low fat, low cholesterol diet. When lean cuts are selected and low fat cooking methods are used, beef can be a very healthy part of the diet. The leanest cuts of beef have the words "loin" or "round" contained within the description such as tenderloin, eye of round, or top round. Low fat cooking methods include broiling, baking, roasting, grilling, steaming, stewing, and braising.
About half the fat in beef is monounsaturated which is the same healthy type of fat found in olive oil. The monounsaturated fatty acids found in beef can help decrease the LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood and help to increase the HDL (good) cholesterol. The leanest cuts of beef have an average of 70 to 80 mg. of cholesterol. Some cuts have even less than this. The top loin, for example, has 65 mg. of cholesterol and the eye round has only 60 mg. This compares very well to a skinless chicken breast which has 70 mg. of cholesterol per 3 ounce serving. It is recommended that no more than 300 mg. of cholesterol per day should be consumed, so 2 or 3 servings of lean beef per day allows plenty of room before reaching the maximum recommended level.As with any type of meat, trimming excess fat from beef is essential in reducing saturated fat and cholesterol from the diet. However, doing this before the meat is cooked can make the meat tougher and less flavorful, especially if it is broiled, roasted, or grilled. Trimming the remaining fat after cooking will eliminate some of the saturated fat and cholesterol, but some of it will have melted into the meat during the cooking process, acting as a natural tenderizer. In some cases, you may have to decide if the elimination of as much of the fat as possible before cooking is more important than enjoying the optimum flavor and tenderness that results from the inclusion of the fat. The bottom line is that moderation is the key when enjoying any type of food and that it is important to include all of the essential food groups in a well balanced diet

source: Hormel Foods